Tag: remote execution
Recent discussion of proposed amendments to the Succession Law Reform Act under Bill 245 has raised questions of whether corresponding changes will be made to the Substitute Decisions Act, 1992. In particular, some estate lawyers are wondering whether a new validation section may be added to the Substitute Decisions Act to address the issue of court validation of powers of attorney (like the new section 21.1 of the Succession Law Reform Act has been proposed to allow courts to validate improperly-executed wills) and/or whether remote execution options may soon be made permanent for powers of attorney as well as wills.
The Substitute Decisions Act already contains curative provisions that allow the court to validate incapacity planning documents in circumstances where the documents are not executed in strict compliance with formal requirements.
Subsection 10(4) of the Substitute Decisions Act reads as follows with respect to the validation of Continuing Powers of Attorney for Property:
(4) A continuing power of attorney that does not comply with subsections (1) and (2) is not effective, but the court may, on any person’s application, declare the continuing power of attorney to be effective if the court is satisfied that it is in the interests of the grantor or his or her dependants to do so.
Subsection 48(4) of the Substitute Decisions Act reads as follows with respect to the validation of Powers of Attorney for Personal Care:
(4) A power of attorney for personal care that does not comply with subsections (1) and (2) is not effective, but the court may, on any person’s application, declare the power of attorney for personal care to be effective if the court is satisfied that it is in the grantor’s interests to do so.
Remote Execution of Documents in Counterpart
While the focus of discussions among estate lawyers regarding Bill 245 may be the proposed updates to the Succession Law Reform Act and, in terms of formal will execution, the amendment of section 4 as it relates to the requirements for the witnessing of wills, Bill 245 also includes proposed changes to the Substitute Decisions Act under Schedule 8.
A new section 3.1 of the Substitute Decisions Act is being proposed to add specific references to the use of audio-visual communication technology and counterpart signing options in the execution and witnessing of Continuing Powers of Attorney for Property and Powers of Attorney for Personal Care. Accordingly, if Bill 245 is passed, the remote and counterpart execution options made available during the pandemic will be made permanent for wills and powers of attorney alike.
Thank you for reading.
As many of our readers know, Ontario may be well on its way to becoming a jurisdiction in which wills may be validated notwithstanding that they are not strictly compliant with the formal requirements set out under the Succession Law Reform Act. However a recent decision of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice reminds us that Ontario, for now at least, remains a strict compliance jurisdiction where all formalities must be followed in the execution and witnessing of wills and codicils.
During the pandemic, many lawyers have taken advantage of the ability to assist clients in the remote execution and witnessing of their wills, as well as the execution and witnessing of wills in counterpart. In order to validly do so, the will must be witnessed using audio-visual communication technologies. In Re Swidde Estate, 2021 ONSC 1434, however, the drafting solicitor and other witness were neither in the physical presence of the testator nor in her presence by way of audio-visual communication technology, at the time that a codicil was signed. Instead, the witnesses were in communication with the testator over the phone (without video) at the time that she signed the codicil. The codicil was later couriered to the witnesses who then each signed the same document. The Court found that this did not meet the requirements set out under the Emergency Order in Council permitting remote execution and witnessing of wills, and the codicil could not be admitted to probate. This case may serve as a reminder to drafting solicitors to ensure that all requirements are strictly adhered to. In that regard, readers may find it helpful to use a checklist, such as that available through our website (linked here), when assisting clients in the remote execution of wills or other estate planning documents.
Bill 245 is currently in its third reading. Section 5 of Schedule 9 to the Bill provides for the Court validation of wills where a document sets out testamentary intentions but has not been properly executed or made. Such a provision would enable a judge in circumstances such as those in Re Swiddle Estate to validate a will or codicil that was not properly executed. This provision will come into effect no earlier than January 1, 2022 and will apply only to wills left by persons who have died following that date, subject to further changes before the legislation may be finalized and may ultimately take effect. Accordingly, especially while Ontario remains a strict compliance jurisdiction, it is important to exercise caution in ensuring that all wills we prepare are properly executed and witnessed.
Thank you for reading.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ontario government enacted O. Reg. 129/20 (the “Regulation”), which allows for the remote execution of wills and powers of attorney using video conferencing and counterpart. The Regulation was effective as of April 22, 2020 and was recently extended until September 22, 2020.
In light of the above, we can presume that many of the wills executed over the past five months were done using video conferencing. According to the Reopening Ontario (A Flexible Response to COVID-19) Act, 2020, the Regulation may be extended by further orders up to July 24, 2021. Thus, it is possible that the remote execution of wills may continue in the weeks to come.
As with all client meetings, the execution of a will using video conferencing should be well-documented. In most cases, the attendees of a video conference have the option to record both the audio and visual of the meeting. Thus, those who seek a more comprehensive account of the virtual meeting might consider recording the video conference. For information on the benefits and risks of recording client meetings using virtual communication technologies, such as a will signing by video conference, you can visit the Law Society’s COVID-19 Practice Management FAQs.
In the event of a challenge to the will, any video recording of the will signing that may exist will likely be producible documentation. This recording has the potential to be a crucial piece of evidence in the dispute. First, the recording can be used to show that the requirements for due execution of the will have been complied with. To the extent that the testator commented on the dispositions made in their will during the will signing meeting, the video recording may also assist in confirming the testator’s wishes and providing a rationale for their testamentary choices. A video recording could also help demonstrate that the testator was of sound mind at the time they signed their will.
However, it is also important to note that any video recording of the will signing will probably be heavily scrutinized by the person challenging the will. Any behaviour displayed by the testator that could be perceived as hesitation, uncertainty, forgetfulness, or misunderstanding could potentially be used to undermine the validity of the will. As such, depending on the idiosyncrasies of the testator, and how they react to being on camera, retaining a video record of the execution of the will might not be especially helpful in warding off challenges to the will.
Thanks for reading!