Tag: probate fees
Our blog has previously covered the issue of inheritance tax.
As a reminder, inheritance tax is charged on estates of a certain value or greater on a percentage basis. Smaller estates (different amounts depending on the jurisdiction) may be exempt, with the applicable tax charged on the portion of the estate exceeding the exemption limit. Inheritance tax does not apply to Canadian estates or their beneficiaries. While we see individuals go to great lengths to avoid the payment of Estate Administration Taxes payable on assets administered under a probated will in Ontario and other provinces, the rate (at approximately 1.5% in Ontario) is significantly lower than what we see in jurisdictions where estates are subject to inheritance tax (up to 55% in Japan).
In particular, we have covered a number of developments in U.S. inheritance tax, which saw some fluctuations during Donald Trump’s presidency. Trump had proposed the elimination of inheritance taxes all together. More recently, President Joe Biden’s government has been considering a number of measures to increase the taxation of large estates: the reduction of the estate tax exemption to $3.5 million (from $11.7 million), increasing inheritance tax rates from 40% to 65%, and/or increasing taxes on capital gains in respect of inherited assets. News reports suggest that there has been resistance to the proposed increased tax burden to estates as the proposed increased capital gains tax makes its way through congress. However, the measures proposed by President Biden could generate an additional $213 billion to $400 billion over the next ten years.
Having just seen another federal election in Canada, it is interesting to follow along with how inheritance tax has been used as an important part of political agendas in other jurisdictions. It will be interesting to see if inheritance tax or other taxes applied to estates become part of political platforms locally in coming years, as we continue to approach the greatest ever transition of wealth from one generation to the next.
Thanks for reading,
Other blog entries that may be of interest:
Previous entries in our blog have covered inheritance taxes in the United States and other jurisdictions and President Trump’s proposed elimination of the tax altogether. Recent news coverage has zeroed in on how the family of the American president has allegedly evaded over half a billion dollars in tax liabilities that should have been paid on the transfer of significant family wealth.
Certain exceptions apply, but inheritance tax (more frequently referred to as “death tax” by President Trump himself) of 40% typically applies to assets of American estates beyond an initial value of $11.18 million. This means that estates up to this size are exempt from inheritance taxes, while the wealthy engage in complex planning strategies to minimize tax liabilities triggered by death (some of which mirror those used by Canadians in an effort to avoid payment of estate administration taxes on assets administered under a probated will).
Despite Trump’s previous statements that he has independently earned his fortune without reliance on prior family wealth, The New York Times reports that he and his siblings together received over $1 billion from their parents’ estates and that $550 million (55% under the old inheritance tax regime) ought to have been paid in taxes. However, in 1999-2004, during which years the estates of Fred and Mary Trump were administered, a rate of closer to 5% was paid in taxes. Whether the tax-minimizing methods used by the Trump family were legitimate or questionable remains unclear:
The line between legal tax avoidance and illegal tax evasion is often murky, and it is constantly being stretched by inventive tax lawyers. There is no shortage of clever tax avoidance tricks that have been blessed by either the courts or the I.R.S. itself. The richest Americans almost never pay anything close to full freight. But tax experts briefed on The Times’s findings said the Trumps appeared to have done more than exploit legal loopholes.
Sometimes, the line between legitimate tax-minimizing planning strategies and outright tax evasion can appear thin. It is important to avoid improper strategies that put the assets of an estate and their intended distribution at risk, and which may ultimately serve only to complicate and delay the administration of the estate.
Thank you for reading.
Trusts have been around for hundreds of years, so a type that’s only been around for 17 years is still considered “new” in the trust world. Two types of living trusts (those that you establish during your lifetime) – the alter-ego trust and joint spousal trust – have been available to Canadians only since 2000. These “newer” trusts are worth a quick review, because they can be beneficial in many estate situations.
Trusts with a twist
Like other types of living trust, you create an alter-ego or joint spousal trust by transferring ownership of assets to a trustee (either an individual or a trust company), which then manages and administers those assets for the trust’s beneficiary. But that’s where the similarities end. There are three key differences with an alter-ego trust:
- Unlike other living trusts, there is no deemed sale of your assets at the time of transfer. So, you can roll over assets into the trust without triggering any immediate capital gains tax liability;
- You must be at least 65 years old to settle an alter-ego or joint spousal trust; and
- You must be the sole beneficiary (or you and your spouse in the case of a joint spousal trust), with an entitlement to income and capital during your lifetime. As with any living trust, income retained in the trust is taxed in the trust’s hands at the highest marginal tax rate.
Why consider an alter ego or joint spousal trust? There are a few reasons:
- Bye-bye probate fees: The trust assets do not form part of your estate and are not subject to any probate fees or taxes which may apply. For example, in Ontario – which has the country’s highest estate administration tax – a $1.5 million estate would be liable for $22,000 in taxes. By placing some or all of the estate assets in an alter-ego or joint spousal trust, the estate would benefit from significant tax savings. And if you transfer your principal residence into the trust, the trust maintains the benefit of the principal residence exemption.
- Privacy and protection: Both forms of trust avoid the public disclosure of your named beneficiary and of the assets in the trust, both of which are part of the probate process. They can also offer creditor protection, because ownership of the asset is transferred to the trustee. However, if the purpose of the trust is found to have been set up to avoid or defeat creditors, then those assets can be clawed back and you won’t be able to protect them against creditors.
- Convenience: The trusts also offer protection in the event of incapacity. If you – or both you and your spouse – become incapacitated, the protection of the trust is already in place and the assets continue to be administered by the trustee for your continuing benefit. These trusts can also prevent litigation because it can more difficult to challenge the validity of a living trust than a will.
Of course, you need to balance these benefits with some of the disadvantages. You no longer have access to the capital in the trust, you’re not able to write off any capital losses against capital gains upon death, and there are legal and other costs to setting up the trust, along with ongoing administration expenses, such as trustee fees and the cost of annual tax returns.
For a more detailed analysis of the pros and cons, RBC offers an excellent overview: http://ca.rbcwealthmanagement.com/documents/682561/682577/Alter+Ego+%26+Joint+Partner+Trusts.pdf/3957f00a-c0ea-4917-b02c-f1bc74f44660
Thank you for reading!