Tag: Elder Law
The Supreme Court of Canada recently refused leave to appeal a decision of the Quebec Court of Appeal that raises the issue of whether old age should be considered as a factor during sentencing.
The appellant had been convicted of fraud, conspiracy to commit fraud, and laundering the proceeds of crime at the direction of or in association with a criminal organization. A prior appeal regarding the conviction itself had been dismissed by the Quebec Court of Appeal.
The Lower Court recognized the role of the appellant as a directing mind of a criminal organization and the losses suffered by the government as a result of his fraudulent acts. The Court had stated that age, even if it could be taken into account, was “only one factor among many”, which “cannot have a determinative impact because of the great number of aggravating factors”.
The appellant subsequently sought leave to appeal his four-year prison sentence. The appellant asserted that, at 81 years of age and in a poor state of health, his sentence ought to be replaced with a conditional sentence to be served in the community or otherwise limited in duration to allow him the prospect of life after prison.
The Quebec Court of Appeal summarized the law as it relates to the consideration of age during sentencing as follows (at paras 38, 39, 42, 43):
The advanced age of an accused must be taken into account when determining a sentence, as Chief Justice Lamer indicated in R. v. M. (C.A.)…
The age factor must, however, be considered in light of the health of the offender as it relates to his life expectancy. Consequently, the mere fact that an accused is elderly is not, in and of itself, a mitigating factor in determining a prison sentence, unless the evidence reveals that he has little chance of serving the sentence before passing away. This is increasingly true with the general aging of the Canadian population and the raised probability of longer life expectancies.
As a result, if at the time a sentence is imposed, the offender’s state of health does not suggest that he is unlikely to complete the sentence before his demise, the judge then has the necessary discretion to impose an appropriate sentence in light of all the usual factors and criteria…
It is possible that an offender’s state of health deteriorates following sentencing. This possibility increases with the age of the offender. The sentencing judge may not, however, speculate on this subject and must determine the sentence in accordance with the evidence before him when it is rendered…
The Court nevertheless considered the prison sentence to be appropriate, notwithstanding the expectation of the appellant that he may not survive it. The Supreme Court agreed with the reasons of the Quebec Court of Appeal.
With Canada’s aging population, cases like this, in which an individual convicted of a crime is elderly and/or in a poor state of health, can be expected to increase in frequency. The Supreme Court has confirmed that (for the time being at least), while age is a factor to be considered during sentencing, it is merely one to be assessed among others, rather than being determinative of the issue.
Thank you for reading.
I recently came across several articles (one of which can be found here) regarding the elder financial abuse of a senior gentleman in Moncton, New Brunswick. Around 2013, Mr. Goguen had been living in the home that he owned, with tenants residing in part of the property. Upon deciding to sell his home, Mr. Goguen was referred to Ms. Hannah and Mr. Poirier, licensed real estate agents in New Brunswick. After the home had been listed for sale for some time, without success, Ms. Hannah apparently told Mr. Goguen that his home was in such deplorable condition that it would be impossible to sell without making certain repairs (which Ms. Hannah says Mr. Goguen could not afford) and removing the tenants (whom Ms. Hannah has claimed were using drugs and not paying rent).
As a result of the alleged difficulty in selling Mr. Goguen’s house, he, Ms. Hannah, and Mr. Poirier entered into an agreement whereby Ms. Hannah and Mr. Poirier purchased Mr. Goguen’s home. The terms of the arrangement were not favourable to Mr. Goguen, and it appears that Ms. Hannah and Mr. Poirier did not follow through on certain aspects of the agreement.
The Financial and Consumer Services Commission, which regulates real estate agents in New Brunswick, has revoked Ms. Hannah and Mr. Poirier’s real estate licenses. The Commission stated that Ms. Hannah and Mr. Poirier committed financial abuse of a senior and took “outrageous and egregious advantage” of Mr. Goguen. The Public Trustee of New Brunswick has now become involved on Mr. Goguen’s behalf, and has filed a statement of claim against Ms. Hannah and Mr. Poirier, seeking $83,320.00, characterized as the amount owing to Mr. Goguen.
We’ve blogged about elder abuse a number of times. Unfortunately, due to factors such as isolation, physical difficulties, and cognitive impairments, elderly people are often vulnerable to abuse. Given this vulnerability, and the circumstances in which abuse occurs, it can go undetected for a significant amount of time. In such situations, it may be too late to make the elderly person “whole” if the abuse is not discovered until it is too late.
Fortunately in Mr. Goguen’s case, despite the fact that it took a number of years, the Public Trustee discovered the abuse and is now taking steps to protect Mr. Goguen and recoup funds owed to him by his abusers. However, the Public Trustee is seeking the amount of approximately $83,000.00, which may not fully reimburse Mr. Goguen for the value of the house had it been sold to a normal third-party purchaser. Additionally, one of the articles also notes that Mr. Goguen had named Ms. Hannah and Mr. Poirier as his attorneys, and also executed a will naming them as executors and beneficiaries of his estate. It is unclear whether the Public Trustee has sought any relief in this regard. As such, even though the Public Trustee may be pursuing relief on Mr. Goguen’s behalf, it is an unfortunate possibility that he may continue to feel the effects of the abuse.
Thanks for reading.
Other blog posts that may be of interest:
Section 241.1 of the Criminal Code sets out a detailed procedure for determining when medical assistance in dying can be provided. However, the medical and legal communities are still grappling with the application of the provisions.
In A.B. v. Canada (Attorney General), 2017 ONSC 3759 (CanLII), two physicians concluded that AB met the criteria for a medically assisted death. A third doctor, however, did not, as he felt that AB did not meet the Criminal Code requirement that a natural death was reasonably foreseeable. Although only two medical opinions are required, the opinion of the third doctor had a chilling effect on one of the other physicians, who declined to provide assistance to AB for fear of being charged with murder.
AB then applied to court for a determination that she met the requirements of the Criminal Code, and a declaration that she may receive medical assistance in dying.
Justice Perell, who had previously considered the issue of assisted death in another proceeding, heard the application.
Ontario and Canada took the position that a declaration should not issue, as the regime established by the Criminal Code does not require judicial pre-authorization. Further, the civil courts should not issue a declaration as such a declaration would interfere with the prosecutorial discretion of the Crown by predetermining criminal liability.
Justice Perell agreed with the position of Ontario and Canada. However, he felt that their position was “as unhelpful as it is technically correct.” The practical effect of such a position was that AB qualified for medically assisted death, but no physician was prepared to assist.
In his decision, Perell J. thoroughly reviews the legislative history of medical assistance in dying. He agrees that it is the medical practitioner and not the court that is to decide whether the Criminal Code criteria are satisfied. He agrees that the court cannot make the decision for them.
However, Perell J. expresses that some form of declaration would be “useful” and have “utility”.
Perell J. walks a fine line in his decision. He accepts that the court is not to make declarations that the Criminal Code criteria for assisted death are met: that must be done by the medical practitioner or nurse practitioner: s. 241.2(3)(a). What Perell J. does, however, is attempt to clarify what is meant by s. 241.(2)(d): the provision that requires the person to meet the criteria that “their natural death has become reasonably foreseeable”. As a matter of statutory interpretation, he declares that in AB’s case, AB’s natural death is reasonably foreseeable.
Perell J. cautions that in making a declaration, he is not conferring immunity on the physicians from prosecution. He also states that he is not finding that courts could or should grant pre-approvals for persons seeking medical assistance in dying. It is unclear as to whether this will provide much comfort to medical practitioners.
Thank you for reading.
The interplay between evolving social norms and the legal foundations that predate or accelerate these changes has seen significant development in the last decade. Courts of law and of public opinion have made important strides in shaping social policy in many areas, such as medically-assisted death, gender diversity and inclusion, and marriage rights, to name a few. A recent case out of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice considered this last issue, marriage rights, with a particular focus on predatory marriages.
In Hunt v Worrod, 2017 ONSC 7397, the Court was tasked with assessing whether an individual who had suffered a catastrophic brain injury possessed the necessary capacity to marry. In 2011, Kevin Hunt suffered a serious head injury following an ATV accident and spent four months recuperating in hospital. He was eventually discharged into the care of his two sons, but three days after his release, Mr. Hunt was whisked away by his on-and-off girlfriend, Kathleen Worrod, to be ostensibly married at a secret wedding ceremony.
Mr. Hunt’s children brought an application to the Court on his behalf to void the marriage, partly to preclude Ms. Worrod from accruing spousal rights to share in Mr. Hunt’s property or assets. Ultimately, the Court concluded that Mr. Hunt did not possess the requisite capacity to enter into the marriage.
In its reasons, the Court relied heavily on the opinions of several expert witnesses and the existing body of legal authority. The Court began by reviewing section 7 of Ontario’s Marriage Act, which provides that an officiant shall not “solemnize the marriage” of any person that the officiant has reasonable grounds to believe “lacks mental capacity to marry.”
The expert evidence tendered by the parties suggested that Mr. Hunt had significant impairments in his ability to make decisions, to engage in routine problem-solving, and to organize and carry out simple tasks. He was characterized as “significantly cognitively impaired”, and was assessed as being incapable of managing his property, personal care, or safety and well-being.
The Court subsequently relied on the test for capacity to enter into a marriage contract established by the British Columbia Supreme Court in Ross-Scott v Potvin in 2014. The Court held that a person has the capacity to enter into a marriage contract only if that person has the capacity to understand the duties and obligations created by marriage and the nature of the commitment more generally.
The Court also identified the tension between balancing Mr. Hunt’s autonomy as against the possibility that he lacked the capacity to appreciate the legal and social consequences of marriage. Ultimately, the Court was satisfied that Mr. Hunt’s children had met their burden of demonstrating that their father lacked the necessary capacity to marry Ms. Worrod. The marriage was declared void ab initio, and the attendant spousal property rights that would have otherwise flowed to Ms. Worrod were lost.
Thanks for reading.
As the holiday season comes to a close, many of us will take stock of the time enjoyed with friends, family, and loved ones, and look forward to the prospect of a new year. Unfortunately, as members of the estates bar, we are occasionally called on to review circumstances in which no family members or loved ones are around for the purposes of a deceased individual’s estate planning decisions. More specifically, we are often asked to consider the proper legal procedures when an individual passes away having named an estate trustee who is incapable of acting, and where the individual died leaving no spouse, children, or next-of-kin in Ontario.
In the foregoing circumstances, Ontario’s Crown Administration of Estates Act gives the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee (the “PGT”) the appropriate authority to step in to the shoes of an estate trustee and administer the estate, if necessary and subject to certain statutory guidelines. Section 1 of the Act allows the Superior Court of Justice to issue to the PGT “letters of administration or letters probate”, thereby giving it the authority to administer an estate, provided the following conditions are satisfied:
- The deceased person died in Ontario, or was a resident of Ontario but died elsewhere;
- The person died intestate (that is, without a validly executed will), or died leaving a will that does not name an executor or estate trustee who is willing and able to administer the estate; and
- The Deceased had no known next-of-kin of the age of majority residing in Ontario who are willing to administer the estate.
Certain additional policy considerations not listed in the Act have also been adopted to govern whether the PGT will agree to administer an estate. Notably, the PGT will generally only act as an estate trustee of last resort. Before agreeing to act, the PGT will typically take steps to locate another interested party who may wish to be appointed, for example, any of the deceased person’s next-of-kin from out of province. Moreover, the PGT will only step in to administer estates that will hold a value of at least $10,000 after all debts of the estate have been paid. By its own estimates, at any given time the PGT is actively administering more than 1,400 estates. Accordingly, these additional policy considerations ensure that the appropriate resources can be directed to the estates that the office has agreed to administer.
Thanks for reading. Happy New Year!
Tomorrow marks the end of World Alzheimer’s Month, a campaign to raise awareness and challenge the stigma surrounding dementia.
MP Lisa Raitt marked the occasion this month by making a member’s statement in the House of Commons. In her statement, she noted the 564,000 cases of Alzheimer’s disease in Canada, and the 25,000 newly diagnosed cases each year: one of which was her husband Bruce Wood in 2016 at the age of 56. Raitt stated that the diagnoses presents significant challenges, but that “living with dementia can be okay”.
Alzheimer’s Disease International states that the stigmatization and misinformation that surrounds dementia remains a global problem, and that 2 out of 3 people globally believe that there is little or no understanding of dementia in their country.
Canada appears to be making progress in addressing some of the issues surrounding Alzheimer’s disease. In June, 2017, Bill C-233, the National Strategy for Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias Act, received Royal Assent. The Act requires the federal Minister of Health to develop a comprehensive national strategy to address all aspects of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Within 6 months, the Minister of Health must convene a conference with her provincial counterparts and other stakeholders for the purpose of developing the national strategy. The Minister is to report to Parliament within two years of the proclamation of the Act.
As another resource, the Alzheimer Society Canada website is an excellent tool for raising awareness and a better understanding of the disease, with detailed information about dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, and living with the disease.
Thank you for reading.
Approximately a month ago, it was reported that an Ontario woman had been charged criminally in relation to an elder abuse investigation. The woman will apparently be appearing in court this Monday, June 5, 2017.
The Ontario Provincial Police attended at a home in Warwick Township, Ontario to assist health-care workers in checking on the well-being of a resident. The home was in a state of squalor, and upon searching the house, they located an elderly woman who was incoherent, in need of medical intervention, and was taken to hospital.
We have previously blogged about the criminal consequences of elder abuse in the context of a financial abuse situation (here and here). However, financial elder abuse is not the only form of abuse that can constitute a crime. Physical, emotional and mental abuse, as well as neglect, can also lead to criminal charges. This can be seen in the situation of the elderly woman in Warwick Township, where a woman was charged with failure to provide the necessaries of life in relation to the elderly woman’s condition after the elderly woman had been found in ill-health and in a filthy environment.
Section 215(1) of the Criminal Code of Canada, R.S.C., 1985, c. C-46 establishes a legal duty for every one to provide necessaries of life to a person under his or her charge if that person (i) is unable, by reason of detention, age, illness, mental disorder or other cause, to withdraw him or herself from that charge, and (ii) is unable to provide him or herself with necessaries of life. Section 215(2) makes it an offence if a person fails to perform that duty if the failure “endangers the life of the person to whom the duty is owed or is likely to cause the health of that person to be injured permanently.” The punishment for this offence can be imprisonment for up to five years for an indictable offence, or imprisonment for up to 18 months on summary conviction.
The above is of course only one example of a criminal offence that may arise as a result of elder abuse. Many types of elder abuse will fall under the general criminal code offences, such as assault, intimidation, theft, and forgery.
The issue of elder abuse is a very real one, and is taken seriously by police and the justice system. It is important for victims of elder abuse, and anyone who suspects elder abuse, to be aware that there are options for reporting the abuse, preventing future abuse, and punishing the abuser.
Thanks for reading,
Other blog posts that may be of interest to you:
It’s 8:30 am, you’ve just entered your office, and you get a call from the common-law spouse of one of your long-term clients. It’s bad news – your client is in palliative care and has a will from 2001 that he urgently needs to update. Time is of the essence.
You and your assistant can squeeze in time late in the day to see the client at the hospital. But you know it’s a tricky situation that’s fraught with potential problems. Here are a few steps to consider that could protect you and your client before you head bedside.
- Make sure you have the expertise they need: On the initial call, be sure to ask specific questions about what the client needs done. If there are trusts or other complex arrangements involved, assess whether you have the expertise to assist. If death is imminent, the last thing your client can waste is time in trying to line up another lawyer. So do your due diligence up front.
- Assess capacity: Capacity issues could be front and centre for clients who are close to death. If possible, contact an attending doctor, explain the legal test for capacity and ask them to confirm his or her opinion in writing as soon as possible, even on an interim basis by email.
Learn more about capacity issues here: https://estatelawcanada.blogspot.ca/2010/12/when-is-doctors-opinion-on-capacity.html
- Talk one-to-one: You need, and must insist on, time alone with your client, both to do your own capacity assessment and to minimize any unsubstantiated allegations of undue influence. If the situation is at all suspicious, you have a duty to inquire to satisfy yourself that the client is fully acting on their own accord. This is especially important if the client has had multiple marriages or common-law partners, or has been estranged from family members. If you are not satisfied, you may choose to decline to act.
- Take notes and/or video: Your notes could potentially be used as evidence in a will challenge or solicitor’s negligence action, so be sure to set out the basis for your opinion on issues such as capacity and undue influence, rather than simply stating a conclusion. Consider having a junior lawyer attend with you, to provide a more complete base of evidence. Videotaping the interview may also be helpful, as it can provide important evidence if the will is ever challenged.
Finally, if you have older clients who have indicated a need to revise their will, be proactive. Send them this link and encourage them to act now to avoid the potential drama and perils of a deathbed will: http://globalnews.ca/news/1105176/the-mortality-of-deathbed-wills/
Thanks for reading,
Last week, Ian blogged on the Retirement Homes Regulatory Authority, financial abuse of the elderly, and the competency of elderly individuals to make financial decisions. As stated last week, it is unclear what the responsibilities are of a retirement home in cases where there have been loans between a resident and the licensee.
The recent Licence Appeal Tribunal decision of 2138658 Ontario Ltd. ola Seeley’s Bay Retirement Home v. Registrar, Retirement Homes Regulatory Authority is the first case to look at financial abuse in the context of the Retirement Homes Act, 2010, S.O. 2010 Chapter 11 (the “Act”). This case involved the Retirement Homes Regulatory Authority’s revocation of Seeley’s Bay Retirement Home’s licence on the basis of the alleged financial abuse of three residents, and a former resident.
The Tribunal determined that the former resident offered to grant the licensee a second mortgage, however, the resident had independent legal advice and a proper written mortgage, and as such, no financial abuse was found.
The Tribunal found financial abuse of one out of the three residents. For the first two residents, the Tribunal did not find financial abuse as they were a couple that had a long-term 25-30 year relationship with the licensee. The couple offered a loan to the licensee but he had counted the loan toward the couple’s rent and had paid off the loan at the time of the hearing. The Tribunal found that this was a trade-off, and that people who are competent to manage their own affairs ought to be allowed to make independent financial decisions, and found the loan to be “a matter of friendship and faith”.
The Tribunal found financial abuse of the third resident. Resident three lived in the home for 6 years prior to her death, and was determined to be capable. She managed her own finances and had no close family. The licensee began approaching her for money, which he applied to her rent, yet continued to borrow money beyond the amount paid of rent. There was nothing in writing, no records of the payment, and the resident had no independent legal advice. In 2016, the resident’s health began to deteriorate and she was worried that she would not be able to cover her expenses due to the amount of money she had lent to the licensee. She approached the licensee about repayment and the licensee took no action. The loans were outstanding upon the resident’s death. The Tribunal found this amounted to financial abuse as it was found to be “misappropriation” of resident money under the Act, pursuant to Regulation 166/11 and section 67.
In considering all of the claims against the residence, the Tribunal found that the loans raised concerns about the licensee’s ability to operate the home with honesty and integrity. This was exemplified due to the third resident’s dependency on the home. Moreover, the Tribunal noted that in the third case, there was harm to the resident’s peace of mind along with a risk that she would not be able to pay for her own long-term care.
Thanks for reading,
I was fortunate to have the opportunity to participate in a panel discussion on CBC’s show “On the Money” last night. The panel discussion was prompted by an article posted by CBC news entitled “Care of aging parents costs Canadians an estimated $33B annually.”
The essence of the article was that Canada’s aging population is causing adult children to incur a significant burden, not only in terms of the outlay of money for caregiving costs but, perhaps more significantly, arising from time away from work required to care for their parents.
The Ontario Legislature has recognized the need to address this issue.
Section 49.1(2) of the Employment Standards Act, contains a section on Family Caregiver Leave, which permits employees to take an unpaid leave of absence of up to eight weeks in order to provide care or support to a sick family member.
Pursuant to the statute, an employee would be entitled to an unpaid leave of absence to provide “care or support” to the following family members/individuals who have a “serious medical condition”, including:
- The employee’s spouse.
- A parent, step-parent or foster parent of the employee.
- A child, step-child or foster child of the employee or the employee’s spouse.
- Any individual prescribed as a family member for the purpose of this section.
Although it would appear that there is some relief afforded by the Legislature when an aging parent needs assistance, the fact of the matter is that long-term needs cannot be met except by careful estate planning and consideration of financial resources. It might be worth adding that the family caregiver leave provisions appear to be more directed to short-term illnesses rather than the progressive decline associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Thanks for reading,