Tag: Class Action
A recent class action proceeding against the estate of a deceased illustrates an estate’s limited liability. That is, an estate can’t be liable for more than what is left in the estate.
The case, Davidson v. Solomon (Estate), 2020 ONSC 2898, involved a class action against the estate of a deceased orthodontist. The orthodontist was alleged to have, for years prior to his retirement in 2015, “inappropriately” video recorded patients while he was providing them with dental services. 295 patients, many of whom were minors, were identified as victims.
Dr. Solomon was charged in 2017 with various offences, including voyeurism, making child pornography and possessing child pornography. He died on October 5, 2017 at the age of 69, before the criminal charges were tried. Accordingly, the criminal charges were withdrawn.
The incidents were discovered in 2017 when the Royal College of Dentists began investigating after receiving a complaint about Dr. Solomon’s services. In the course of the investigation, camcorder tapes were discovered, and Children’s Aid and the police were notified. The tapes dated from 1994 to 2014.
A class action was brought against Dr. Solomon on September 29, 2017. According to a news report, the claim sought damages of $1m, Family Law Act damages of $50,000 for each family law claimant, and $500,000 in punitive and exemplary damages. The claim was continued against Dr. Solomon’s estate after his death.
The estate denied the allegations. The allegations were never proven in court.
However, after extensive investigation, including dialogue with the estate’s lawyers, the representative plaintiff’s lawyer determined that the value of the estate was likely limited to $500,000. In light of the criminal nature of the allegations, it was determined that professional liability insurance was not likely to respond to the claim. Thus, it was concluded by the representative plaintiff that any judgment for damages would be limited to $500,000.
In light of this, a settlement was reached which saw to the estate paying a total of $425,000 for damages, administration fees, and legal costs. The court approved this settlement, noting, amongst other factors, that the estate had limited assets to satisfy any judgment. In approving the settlement, the judge hearing the approval motion stated, “Furthermore, there is a significant risk that but for this settlement, the Class Members would recover nothing, given the limited assets available to satisfy any judgment.”
Presumably, the estate plead plene administravit praetor: that the estate had limited assets. Read about this doctrine here.
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When someone composes an obituary for a loved one who has passed away, carefully selecting the photograph to go along with it, one would suppose that the last thing on their mind is the copyright they may hold in that obituary and photograph. Of course, few people expect that an obituary could be the subject of republication or possible copyright infringement.
However, one website has been reproducing obituaries in their “database of deceased people”, leading to questions about ownership of the obituaries themselves, as well as the photographs accompanying them. The website reproduces obituaries and photographs, apparently without permission from the individuals who originally created and posted the obituaries. As reported in this Global News article, one family even states that an obituary for their loved one, which had not been written by their family and contained a number of errors, was posted on the website less than a day after their loved one passed away. The family did not know who wrote the obituary, although the website released a statement that all of the obituaries they re-post are already on the internet.
A recent article in The Lawyer’s Daily discusses an application for certification of a class action copyright claim against this obituary database website. The application claims that the website is infringing copyright and moral rights in respect of the obituaries and photographs. The moral rights claim relates to the website’s monetization of the obituaries by offering options to purchase flowers, gifts, or virtual candles, through affiliate retailers. Some funeral homes offer a similar service, but the article notes that the unsavoury nature of the website’s business model, which consists of “scraping” obituaries from elsewhere on the internet, without permission or notice, and making money by doing so through advertisements or the selling of flowers or virtual candles, could provide some support for the moral rights claim.
In relation to the copyright infringement claims, there may be some obstacles to overcome, particularly in relation to ownership of the copyright. According to The Lawyer’s Daily article, under the Copyright Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. C-42, the person claiming a copyright infringement must be the owner, assignee or exclusive licensee of the work in question. An assignment of copyright must be in writing. As mentioned in the article, this could create an issue if the photograph used in the obituary was taken, for instance, by a stranger.
Damages in the event of liability are also uncertain. In a recent case with similar facts, where the defendants were found to have infringed on the plaintiff’s copyright, the court awarded statutory damages of only $2.00 per image because the cost of capturing the images in that case was low. However, given the emotional aspect of obituaries, it is possible that the facts in this case could lead to a larger damages award.
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For thousands of children across Ontario, the Province is their legal guardian. These children are referred to as Crown Wards under the Child and Family Services Act. A Crown Wardship order will typically be made by the courts if it is found that it is in the child’s best interests that he or she no longer resides with his or her biological parents and where placing the child with another family member is not an option. In the event that a Crown Wardship order is made, the Province becomes the child’s legal guardian with all of the rights and responsibilities that this entails.
Many of these children are often removed from the care of their families as a result of being in an abusive environment. In a Class Action being brought against the government of Ontario, it is further alleged that once these children were made Crown Wards, that many continued to be victimized while in the system, including being subjected to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse.
The Class Action, which encompasses all children who were Crown Wards at any time from January 1, 1966, is seeking justice for what is viewed as the government of Ontario’s failure to protect their rights to claim for the abuse they suffered both prior to becoming Crown Wards and while under the Province’s care. Specifically, it is being claimed that as a result of the Province’s inaction, limitation periods have passed and evidence has disappeared, affecting their ability to seek damages and compensation which is in breach of their fiduciary duties.
Despite arguments by the Province that it does not owe a duty of care to the Crown Wards, the Superior Court of Ontario ruled last week that the Class Action may proceed. The Honourable Mr. Justice Fregeau dismissed the Province’s attempt to appeal the decision of the Superior Court which had granted the motion for an order that the first part of the test for certification be granted.
As the Plaintiffs continue on with the next steps in their action, it remains to be seen whether the courts will ultimately find that the Province did, in fact, owe a duty of care as legal guardian to the Crown Wards and whether any inaction in protecting their rights will be interpreted as a breach of fiduciary duty.
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