Tag: Child and Family Services Act

20 Jan

Can you be adopted as an adult?

Stuart Clark General Interest Tags: , , , , , , , , 0 Comments

Earlier this week I blogged about the ability for an individual to be “adopted” into a Trust, as well as what effect such an adoption order would have upon their rights in relation to their birth parent’s estate. While it may seem like a lot of work to have to be legally adopted to gain access to a trust, if the thought of living the trust fund lifestyle leaves you saying “sign me up”, you may be asking whether it is possible for you to be legally adopted as an adult.

The legal adoption of individuals above 18 years of age in Ontario is governed by section 146(3)(a) of the Child and Family Services Act. Such a section provides little guidance regarding what the court is to look to in determining whether to grant such an adoption, simply providing that the court has the authority to make an adoption order for an individual above 18 years of age.

In Re: Q. (A.L.K.), [1996] O.J. No. 353, Madam Justice Katarynych provides the following commentary with respect to the factors which the court should look to in determining whether to grant the adult adoption:

  1. whether the interaction between the applicant and the proposed adoptee is materially and substantially a parent-and-child interaction, assessed not just subjectively by the two individuals at issue, but also from an objective perspective;
  2. whether the parent-and-child relationship between the applicant and the proposed adoptee has any counterpart in the proposed adoptee’s other relationships; in short, whether an adoption is merely adding a parent to the adult child’s life or rather replacing a former parent;
  3. whether the adoption will advertently or inadvertently defeat the legitimate claim of the proposed adoptee’s existing parents under other legislation also enacted for the public good; and
  4. whether the application is made in good faith.

If the court is of the opinion that the adult adoption meets the criteria listed above, it should grant the adoption.

Thank you for reading.

Stuart Clark

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Can you be adopted into a Trust?

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19 Jan

Do adopted children still receive an entitlement from their birth parent’s estate?

Stuart Clark Estate & Trust Tags: , , , , , , , , , 0 Comments

I recently blogged about the about the fact that, generally speaking, an adopted child would have the same rights to take from a trust established in relation to their adoptive parents as would a biological child of their adoptive parents. While this may leave the dream of being adopted into a rich family alive for some, what impact, if any, does an adoption order have upon the adopted child’s rights vis-à-vis their birth parents’ estates? If an adopted child’s birth parent should die without a Will, or leave a bequest in their Will to their “children”, would the adopted child receive a benefit from their estate?

In Ontario, the legal status of adopted children is governed by the Child and Family Services Act (the “CFSA“). Section 158(2) of the CFSA provides that, for the purposes of law, upon an adoption order being granted the adopted child becomes the child of the adoptive parent and ceases to be the child of the person who was his or her parent before the adoption order was granted.

As a result of section 158(2) of the CFSA, and the clear provision that an adopted child ceases to be a “child” of their birth parent in the eyes of the law upon the adoption order being granted, an adopted child would no longer be a “child” of their birth parent in determining entitlement from the birth parent’s estate. The adopted child would no longer receive a benefit on an intestacy of their birth parent in accordance with Part II of the Succession Law Reform Act, nor be included with the class of “children” or “issue” in any bequest in their birth parent’s Will.

While an adopted child would not take as a “child” of their birth parent on an intestacy or in a bequest in their birth parent’s Will, this does not necessarily mean that an adopted child may never receive an entitlement from their birth parent’s estate. Should the birth parent of an adopted child wish to provide a bequest to such a child from their estate, they may specifically provide a bequest to such an adopted child in their Will. In providing such a bequest however, it is important that the adopted child be specifically referenced by name in the Will, as any general gift to the testator’s “children” would not catch the adopted child as a result of section 158(2) of the CFSA.

Thank you for reading.

Stuart Clark

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17 Jan

Can you be adopted into a Trust?

Stuart Clark Estate & Trust Tags: , , , , , , , , , , 0 Comments

When one thinks of a “trust fund baby“, images of a lavish lifestyle supported by family wealth probably come to mind. But with the images likely comes the sad realization that such a lifestyle will not be enjoyed be you; either you are born into such wealth or you are not. But is this necessarily true? Could you be adopted into a trust, and with it adopt the lifestyle of a trust fund baby? If a trust has been set up which provides that the beneficiaries of the trust are to be the issue (i.e. children) of a specific individual, if such an individual legally adopts you, would you become a beneficiary of the trust?

In Ontario, the legal status of adopted children is governed by the Child and Family Services Act (the “CFSA“). Section 158(2) of the CFSA provides that, for the purposes of the law, upon an adoption order being granted the adopted child becomes the child of the adoptive parent and ceases to be the child of the person who was his or her parent before the adoption order was granted.

With respect to the question of whether an adopted child gains status under any will or trust, section 158(4) of the CFSA provides:

“In any will or other document made at any time before or after the 1st day of November, 1985, and whether the maker of the will or document is alive on that day or not, a reference to a person or group or class of persons described in terms of relationship by blood or marriage to another person shall be deemed to refer to or include, as the case may be, a person who comes within the description as a result of an adoption, unless the contrary is expressed.” [emphasis added]

Simply put, so long as the will or trust deed does not specifically preclude adopted children from becoming included as part of any class of persons described by relationship by blood or marriage, an adopted child would be treated no differently than a biological child in determining who forms part of such a class. As a result, presuming that the trust in question does not bar adopted children from becoming beneficiaries, should the wealthy individual contemplated in the hypothetical above legally adopt you, you would become a beneficiary of the trust.

Your dreams of living as a trust fund baby may not be over yet. Thank you for reading.

Stuart Clark

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