Tracing your ancestry is big business these days. According to Ancestry.com, the company and its worldwide affiliates have 3 million paid subscribers and have collected 15 million DNA samples from individuals.
Everyone seems to know someone with a story, some happy, some disturbing. Some people discover a 1st cousin and reconnect with them (good news)! Others find out they have a half-sister they never knew about (oops)!
It can get more disturbing than that. Police have used the DNA collected by ancestry websites to narrow down suspects in murder investigations. That’s how the Golden State Killer was arrested in 2018 for rapes and murders committed 30 to 40 years previously. It’s quite the story. The killer’s relatives clearly did him no good service by happily submitting their DNA.
Using ancestry to expand your horizons
One way that we might want to use our ancestry is verifying our roots and exploring opportunities for citizenship in another country. Many Canadians already enjoy dual citizenship because they or their parents were born outside of Canada. But many do not. And there can be advantages, including the ability to travel and work there, own property, or receive health care.
One example: if you have a grandparent who was born in the Republic of Ireland, you likely qualify for Irish citizenship, which would also make you an EU citizen with all of those privileges.
The rules differ by country, and the application process is undoubtedly thorough and time-consuming, even if you are clearly eligible. But if the potential advantages are appealing, dual citizenship might be an idea worth exploring.
Weigh any downside as well
Of course, you’ll need to look at the potential disadvantages as well (for example, there may be tax obligations you hadn’t counted on). This blog post has some good tips on the practicalities of carrying two passports, but also a quick pros and cons list of holding citizenship in two countries.
Thanks for reading … Have a great day,
I recently blogged about the growing use of home DNA tests and what impact an unexpected result could have upon your rights as a beneficiary of an estate. While such a blog was from the perspective of an individual who discovered through a home DNA test that their biological father was not in fact the individual they previously believed it to be, and the potential impact such a finding could have upon their status as a beneficiary of their “father’s” estate if their interest was based on their status as a “child”, questions would also emerge in such a scenario if you were the Estate Trustee of such an estate regarding what you should do.
If you are the Estate Trustee of an estate in which a bequest is based on parentage (i.e. an intestacy or a bequest to a testator’s “issue” or “children”), and you discover that one of the beneficiaries has voluntarily taken a home DNA test which revealed that they were not in fact related to the deceased, could you still make a distribution to such a beneficiary? If you have already made a distribution to such a beneficiary, is there a risk that the other beneficiaries could now make a claim against you as Estate Trustee, alleging that you distributed the estate to the incorrect individuals and that they have suffered damages as a result?
In response to whether an Estate Trustee could potentially be liable to the other beneficiaries for historically paying out amounts to a beneficiary who it is later discovered was not actually related to the deceased, it would appear that the Estate Trustee likely would not be liable under such a scenario. In my previous blog I discussed the provisions of the Children’s Law Reform Act (the “CLRA“) which establish a person’s legal parentage in Ontario, and the various presumptions establishing an individual’s father. While sections 13(1) and 14(1) of the CLRA allow the court to make a subsequent different declaration as to a person’s parentage, section 14(2) of the CLRA provides that such an Order “does not affect rights and duties that were exercised or performed, or interests in property that were distributed, before the order was set aside“. As a result, it would appear, arguably, that if an Estate Trustee historically made a payment to an individual based off of parentage, and a subsequent declaration is made by the court that the individual in question was not actually the parent of the beneficiary, the historic payment to the beneficiary could not be put in issue or reclaimed provided that at the time the payment was made the beneficiary was still presumed and/or declared to be the child of the deceased.
The issue of what an Estate Trustee is to do if a payment has not yet been made and they discover that an individual who they previously believed to be a beneficiary is not in fact related to the deceased could be more complicated. In the event that the other beneficiaries who could be affected by the distribution do not unanimously consent to continue to allow the distribution to the individual notwithstanding the results of the DNA test, it is possible that one or all of the other beneficiaries may later bring a claim against the Estate Trustee for negligence, alleging that the Estate Trustee knew about the results of the DNA test before making the distribution and that they have suffered damages as a result of the distribution. To offset such a risk, it may be wise for the Estate Trustee in such a scenario to bring an Application for the opinion, advice and direction of the court pursuant to section 60(1) of the Trustee Act and/or rule 14.05, asking the court to determine whether the distribution may still be made to the potential beneficiary in light of the results of the home DNA test.
Thank you for reading.
One of the most gifted items this past holiday season were apparently the home DNA tests which can reveal your genetic ancestry or even if you are predisposed to certain health conditions. As anyone who has taken one of these tests (myself included) can tell you, the test results also contain a long list of other individuals who have also taken the test who you are related to, allowing you to reconnect with long lost relatives.
While my own test results did not reveal any family secrets, the same cannot be said for other individuals who have taken the test, as there have been a growing number of articles recently about how home DNA tests have revealed family secrets which otherwise may never have come to light. Although not all of these secrets are necessarily negative, such as finding a long-lost sibling, others, such as finding out that the individual who you believed to be your father was not in fact your biological father, could be life changing. For the latter, the phenomena is apparently common enough that the Atlantic has reported that self-help groups have formed around the issue, such as the Facebook group “DNA NPE Friends”, with “NPE” standing for “Not Parent Expected”.
In reading through these stories I couldn’t help but wonder if having such a result could impact your potential entitlements as a beneficiary of an estate. What happens if, for example, the individual who you previously believed to be your biological father but the test reveals was not in fact your father should die intestate, or should leave a class gift to his “children” in his Will without specifically naming the children. Could finding out that you were not actually biologically related to your “father” result in you no longer being entitled to receive a benefit as a beneficiary? Could you potentially be disinherited as a beneficiary of an estate by voluntarily taking a home DNA test if your right to the gift is founded upon you being related to the deceased individual?
Who is legally considered an individual’s “parent” in Ontario is established by the Children’s Law Reform Act (the “CLRA“). Section 7(1) of the CLRA provides that, subject to certain exceptions, the person “whose sperm resulted in the conception of a child” is the parent of a child. Section 7(2) of the CLRA further provides for a series of presumptions regarding the identity of the individual’s “whose sperm resulted in the conception of a child“, including, for example, that there is a presumption that such an individual is the birth parent’s spouse at the time the child is born, or the individual in question certified the child’s birth as a parent of the child in accordance with the Vital Statistics Act (i.e. signed the birth certificate). To the extent that there are any questions about parentage, section 13(1) of the CLRA provides that any interested individual may apply to the court at any time after a child is born for a declaration that a person is or is not the legal parent of the child.
In applying these presumptions to our previous questions about the home DNA test, if, for example, the individual who you previously believed was your biological father was your birth mother’s “spouse” at the time you were born, or signed the birth certificate, it would appear that, subject to there being a declaration under section 13(1) of the CLRA to the contrary, there would continue to be a presumption at law that the individual who you previously believed to be your biological father would continue to be your legal “parent” in accordance with the CLRA. To this respect, in the absence of a formal declaration under section 13(1) of the CLRA that the individual was no longer your legal “parent”, there would appear to be an argument in favour of the position that the individual who you previously believed to be your biological father would continue to be your legal “parent”, and that you should continue to receive any benefits which may come to you as a “child” on the death of your “father”, whether on an intestacy or a class bequest to his “children” in his Will.
This presumption, of course, is subject to the ability of any interested person (i.e. the Estate Trustee or one of the other beneficiaries) to seek a formal declaration under section 13(1) of the CLRA that you were not in fact a “child” of the individual you believed to be your biological father. If such a formal declaration is ultimately made by the court, you would cease to be the legal “child” of the individual who you previously believed to be your biological father, and would likely lose any corresponding bequests which may have been made to you on an intestacy or as a member of the class “children” in the Will.
The use of DNA tests to establish the potential beneficiaries of an estate is not a new phenomenon (see: Proulx v. Kelly). What is new, however, are people voluntarily taking such tests en masse in a public forum, potentially voluntarily raising questions about their rights to receive an interest in an estate when such questions would not have existed otherwise.
Thank you for reading.
An estate trustee’s duties in administering an estate include, among other things, the distribution of all estate assets in accordance with the terms of the Will or the rules of intestacy in the event there is no Will. However, in order to make such a distribution, the estate trustee will be required to identify any and all beneficiaries rightfully entitled to a share of the estate.
For most estates, this is often a simple and routine task. However, where the deceased has a large extended family, complications may arise in both determining and locating beneficiaries, particularly, in circumstances where the deceased dies without a Will.
An estate trustee must make “reasonable inquiries” to identify beneficiaries. Unfortunately, there is no statutory definition for what constitutes reasonable inquiries. What is considered reasonable will depend on the particular circumstances of the estate. However, this may include speaking with family, friends and neighbours of the deceased, searching through the deceased’s personal effects and papers for the beneficiary’s contact details or conducting searches using online search engines such as Canada.411, www.cyndislist.com; www.rootsweb.com; www.ancestry.com and www.jewishgen.org.
Often, estate trustees will hire a professional researcher or a genealogist to assist them in locating a missing beneficiary. Such professional researchers often have access to databases that are not available to the general public. The Archives of Ontario can provide a list of accredited researchers both in Canada and internationally. The International Commission for the Accreditation of Professional Genealogists also maintains a database on their website which can be accessed here.
Despite such reasonable efforts, an estate trustee may still be unable to locate a beneficiary or may have concerns that not all possible heirs have been ascertained. If the estate trustee wishes to proceed with the administration in such circumstances, he/she will need to bring an Application for the advice and direction of the Court and swear an affidavit in which he/she outlines the efforts taken to locate the missing beneficiaries. This affidavit must be filed with the Court on notice to the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee. As such, it is important for an estate trustee to document any and all steps taken to locate a missing beneficiary, and if an expert is retained, obtain a copy of his/her search efforts as well.
On hearing the Application, the Court may require that the estate trustee take additional steps, or that a period of time passes to ensure that the missing beneficiaries will not come forward at a later time.
Thank you for reading.