Living Wills and Powers of Attorney for Personal Care
A “Living Will” or “Advance Directive” is a document that indicates the grantor’s preferences with respect to health conditions and treatment, including the level of medical intervention. It is a guide for the person who must communicate with physicians and make health care decisions in the event the patient is not able to do so him or herself. It is different from a Power of Attorney for Personal Care, which is a document naming a specific person to act on your behalf.
An Advance Directive can be very detailed and tailored to the individual’s personal circumstances. For example, on the University of Toronto Centre for Bioethics website you can find information on a Cancer Specific Advance Directive.
Given the complex medical nature, it may well be that the specifics of such a directive lay more comfortably in the bailiwick of the health care professional rather than the legal professional. Ideally, the Power of Attorney for Personal Care should include a detailed health care directive. This approach offers the assurance that the grantor’s wishes are taken into account without the wording in the Advance Directive inadvertently voiding his or her Power of Attorney for Personal Care.
A Power of Attorney for Personal Care may also include conditions or restrictions other than Advance Directives such as limiting the attorney’s ability to act until a confirmation of incapacity has been obtained, and determining the method of assessing capacity.
If a person becomes incapable of making personal care decisions and has no Guardian of the Person or Power of Attorney conferring the authority to make health care decisions, the Health Care Consent Act of Ontario provides a statutory hierarchy of persons who can provide consent on the incapable person’s behalf in descending order of authority as follows:
- Spouse or partner
- Child or parent
- Brother or sister
- Any other relative
Therefore, it is especially important to prepare a Power of Attorney for Personal Care if you would not want your spouse, child or parent to make health care decisions on your behalf should you become unable to make them yourself.
For further information on this topic, see Q & A on Powers of Attorney and Living Wills by the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee for Ontario, or this book about Living Wills by M. Dianne Godkin.
Thanks for reading.
Sharon Davis – Click here for more information on Sharon Davis.